Venezuela can be split into four distinct topographical regions. The Maracaibo lowlands in the north-west, the northern mountain ranges extending from west to east along the northern coastline, the wide central plains and the Guiana highlands in the south-east. Although considered mostly tropical, the climate varies from humid in low plains to glaciers and highlands. A mega-diverse country, Venezuela has a wide range of environments including the Andes mountains, coastal regions, extensive plains, scrublands, rainforests and cloud-forests. Within these different environments lies a diverse range of flora and fauna.
Some of the notable animal species include the Jaguar, Giant ant-eater and Capybara, the largest rodent in the world. Over the past few decades Venezuela has become victim to logging , mining, deforestation, erosion, and development due to human demands.